A key problem in establishing secure communications is to make sure that you're communicating with the right party. It is not sufficient just to request identity information from the other party - there must also be a way to verify this information before you can trust it. Certificates provide a solution to this, as they embody both a party's identity information (including that party's hostname and public key) and a signature from a trusted third party who vouches for the correctness of the identity information. A certificate should be trusted only:

We will not go into the technical details of the signing process, other than mentioning that it is based on public/private key cryptography. A signature for a certificate is the (fairly compact) result of a complex calculation that involves both the contents of the certificate and the signer's private key, and which cannot be reproduced without that same private key. The signature can be verified by doing another calculation that involves the contents of the certificate, the signature and the signer's public key. This calculation will tell whether the certificate matches the signature and thus is genuine. Note that the public key only enables you to verify a signature, not generate one. Thus the public key will not enable anyone to fake a certificate.

The signing party must never give the private key to anyone, but will distribute the public key as widely as possible. However, one issue still remains before you can trust a signature: You must be sure that you have a genuine copy of the signing party's public key. Public keys for well-known signing authorities like VeriSign are distributed with every browser and Java Runtime, and your trust in the signature (and thus the certificate) is in fact based on your trust in the way the browser or Java Runtime was installed.

It is possible to create your own signing authority by creating a public/private key pair and distributing the public key. This is done by embedding the public key in a certificate (a so-called self-signed certificate). Of course a party receiving such a certificate will not trust it based on its signature, but because he trusts you and the way that the certificate was communicated to him.

In order to make this scheme more flexible in actual implementation, it is possible to delegate the authority to sign. That is, the signature on a certificate may not actually be from a third party that you trust, but rather from yet another party who can display a certificate that you will trust. This may be extended to any number of levels, representing a chain of trust. To make verification practical, the signed certificate contains copies of all the certificates associated with the chain of trust (the last one being a self-signed root certificate). At least one of the certificates in this chain should be previously trusted by you.

Certificates are used in four different ways on RoboServer, corresponding to the four properties on the "Certificates" tab. Two of these have to do with how robots access web servers as part of their execution:

Verify HTTPS Certificates:

A robot may need to verify the identity of a web server that it accesses (via HTTPS). Such a verification is routinely (and invisibly) done by ordinary browsers in order to detect phishing attacks. However, the verification often is not necessary when robots collect information, because the robots only access those well-known web sites that they have been written for. Thus the verification it is not enabled by default.

If enabled, verification is done in the same way a browser does it: The web server's certificate is checked based on an installed set of trusted HTTPS certificates similar to those you can configure in a browser.

HTTPS Client Certificates:

This is almost the same as described above, but in the opposite direction. A robot may need to access a web server which wants to verify the identity of the client (robot) that accesses it. Presumably the web server contains confidential or commercial data that should be passed on only to clients with a proven identity. This identity is represented by a HTTPS client certificate.

Two other properties have to do with authentication in the communication between RoboServer and API clients that want robots to be executed on RoboServer. These properties apply only when clients connect to RoboServer via the secure socket based RQL protocol. The main purpose of the secure protocol is to encrypt communication, but with a little configuration it will also provide authentication, i.e., identity verification:

Verify API Client Certificates:

RoboServer is able to verify the identity of any client that connects to it in order to execute robots. This verification is disabled by default.

If enabled, the mechanics of verification is the same as for HTTPS certificates even though the purpose is quite different. The connecting client's certificate is checked based on an installed set of trusted API client certificates.

API Server Certificate:

RoboServer also has a server certificate that it will present to connecting clients. This certificate has a dual purpose: It makes the encryption side of SSL work (for this reason RoboServer comes with a default self-signed certificate), and it identifies this particular RoboServer to the clients.

The default API server certificate is the same for all RoboServers and thus is not any good for identification. If your clients need to verify the identity of the RoboServer they connect to, as described in SSL, you must create and install a unique API Server Certificate for each RoboServer.